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InNorth Carolina law enforcement authorities developed a single internet undercover operation called Operation Peerless that quickly almost effortlessly identified over 3, computers around the world that were trading images of known child pornography — disquieting to say the least.
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While examining the Gnutella P2P file sharing network in that complex investigation, law enforcement authorities learned that computers on the Gnutella network have software installed on them that will facilitate the trading of pornographic images. When installed properly, the software allows the user to search for pictures, movies and other digital files by entering text as search terms.
Some names of this specific software include, but are not limited to, BearShare, LimeWire, Shareaza, Morpheus, Gnucleus, Phex and other software clients.
Those software programs that interface with the Gnutella Network are called Gnutelliums. More recent innovative investigative techniques have established undercover cases on the Gnutella P2P network that Gnutella Prople users can find images and movies of child pornography by using specific text search terms. This MPEG file will usually depict a series of short clips of very young children with adults engaged in explicit sexual conduct.
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Law enforcement personnel have monitored such movies that have the SHA-1 value described above and know it to be dominated by child sex peopple images. These same law enforcement personnel have tested other search terms and and have been able to usefully identify other potential child pornography systems on the P2P network.
Successful undercover cases involving the P2P Gnutella network have confirmed that the system allows the user to select a file from the list of files returned during a query, and then receive that file from other users around the world. Often these users can receive the selected movie from numerous sources at once. The software can balance the network load and recover from network failures by accepting pieces of the movie from different users and then reassemble witu movie on the local computer.
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This provides a way for the cyber-investigator to target a specific computer suspected of containing child pornography. According to these various computer experts, the Gnutella P2P network client software can only succeed in reassembling the movie from different parts if the parts all originate from the same exact movie. In order to confirm this, the Gnutella network has a built-in functionality to ensure precise file matching.
Admittedly, changing portions or pixels of the image will change the ature; however changing the file name will not make a change to the actual digital file. Experts in the field have learned that digital files can be processed and have processed files during testing by this SHA-1 process, resulting in a digital ature. By comparing these digital atures, affiants can conclude that two files are identical with a precision that greatly exceeds Law enforcement experts have been able to validate through testing the fact that users attempting to trade files on the Gnutella file sharing network could choose to place files from their local computer into a shared folder.
If that same user then starts the Gnutella software, that local computer could then calculate the SHA-1 ature of each file in the shared folder and provide that information to other users wishing to trade files. The Gnutella Client Software makes those values available on the network for yahoo chat rooms with real people through the ultra-peers so that multiple persons sharing one movie or file can deliver different pieces of that movie or file to the local software and the local software can ensure a complete and exact copy can be made from the parts.
When a user connects to the Gnutella network, those connections are made to ultra peers who are the backbone of the network handling most, if not all, Gnutella traffic. These users make connections a listing of their files and associated SHA-1 values of those files and keep active open connections to those ultra-peers. When a request for a search goes out, the search goes through from the IP address that has the file because the ultra-peers only have the file listing and not the actual file.
As stated, each of the files may be named differently, but they contain the exact same file and content as long as the SHA-1 values are identical for each file. Affiants have confirmed that entering search query terms in the Gnutella software can result in a list of file names and their associated SHA-1 values that investigators can compare the offered SHA-1 values with known SHA-1 values associated with a specific movie or image files known by the investigator to be child pornography. Once a file with a SHA-1 value matching the SHA-1 value of a known or suspected child pornography file is located, the investigator can use the client software to obtain a list of specific Internet Protocol Addresses IP address where computers are offering that same file.
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Those computers are called hosts and are offering the dith which contains the identical child pornographic cat and are participating in the trade of known images that match known SHA-1 values of child pornography. This feature witth cyber-investigators to conduct undercover operations that involve images known child pornography and often involve identified child victims.
Succinctly, this feature allows the investigator to identify the specific IP address of a computer that has connected to the Gnutella network and contains a file in the shared folder with a SHA-1 value associated with known or suspected child pornography at the precise time this specific computer was connected to the Gnutella P2P network. Law enforcement experts have learned that by conducting undercover investigations and research querying the Gnutella P2P network as described above, they can develop a list of IP addresses identifying locations where a computer has Gnutella P2P sharing software installed.
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The client software can be used to identify and locate unique IP addresses sharing individual files with the same SHA-1 values that match the SHA-1 values of known child pornography. Peoole client software shows and returns lists of IP addresses where those SHA-1 values of known child pornography files have been reported as available for download. That operation could conceivably be done by looking at each SHA-1 value offered and comparing visually known SHA-1 values of child pornography.
The undercover software merely speeds up the comparison. The remaining six were imported. More than 40 peopel cases were also recorded. The tally tooms confirmed infections stands at 8, The city also recorded its rd coronavirus-related death — a year-old chronically ill man tied to a cluster involving dancing venues.
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Lau said the authority had reminded hospitals to pay extra attention to patients rewl quarantine and step up security measures if necessary. More Asian nations restrict travel from UK; Malaysia to buy Russia vaccineA check by University of Hong Kong experts confirmed the sequencing found in the two cases was in line with the variant. This, perhaps, is expected because it was reported that Britain had a relatively large proportion of people carrying such a virus.
So imported cases in Hong Kong should have a certain percentage of that. One has recovered and left hospital.
Chuang also warned that even though the of infections in Hong Kong had dropped, the percentage of untraceable cases was quite high. Lau said a female patient, 91, tested preliminary-positive for the virus, as did two others who had been in the same ward at United Peopl Hospital in Kwun Tong. She had been admitted due to a terminal illness but was discharged on Monday. But when a community nurse visited her at home the next day, she was suffered from a slight shortness of breath.
After a check at the hospital, her initial test result returned positive. Lau said the patients were in a palliative care ward so family members seemed to have visited them on compassionate grounds.
Health authorities would investigate whether their infections were linked to the visits.